Industry Terms

Fifth-generation wireless or 5G is the newest mobile network for cellular communication. It is replacing the current 4G-LTE technology by providing a number of improvements in speed, coverage, and reliability. When fully mature, 5G will revolutionize our ability to stream data on our phones and will facilitate the “internet of things”, where a broad variety of devices are connected. 5G systems will eventually be installed in vehicles to provide telematics services, much like 4G is today. These services will include navigation aids, software updates, music and movie streaming, and other infotainment systems. These services will continue to be subscription based; vehicle owners will pay a fee for this information.

Electronic systems that help the vehicle driver during driving functions. Examples include lane departure warning systems, automatic lane centering, cruise control, electronic stability control and automatic emergency braking. ADAS usually rely on imaging and sensor technologies. These features differ from automated driving systems in that they typically do not relieve the driver from driving, but simply assist while the driver continues to operate the vehicle.

The hardware and software that are collectively capable of performing all driving tasks on a sustained basis. These driving tasks may be limited to certain conditions or geographic constraints. This term is the correct technical term, as specified by the Society of Automotive Engineers, for systems that render a vehicle “automated”, “autonomous” or “driverless”.

Vehicles that have some automated features but are not completely autonomous. Using the same on-board sensor technology as in autonomous vehicles, these vehicles can take over some, but not all, of the driving function of the human driver. The driver still needs to be available to monitor and/or take over other driving functions. Many newer automobiles have automated features. The Society of Automotive Engineers have defined six levels of automation, with each level having a different degree of automated capability.

A vehicle that uses radar, lidar, cameras, GPS, odometry, artificial intelligence and other hardware and software to control, navigate, and drive the vehicle without direct human input. These are sometimes referred to as self-driving vehicles, driverless vehicles, or robotic vehicles. The terms “autonomous” and “automated” are sometimes used interchangeably, but there are subtle differences. “Autonomous” means “self governing, without external intervention”. Vehicles that are fully autonomous are not available yet.

A standardized, digital packet of data used in connected vehicle systems that contains the vehicle position, heading, speed, and other information relating to a vehicle’s state and predicted path. The BSM contains no personally identifying information (PII). The BSM is typically broadcast by a vehicle on-board unit ten times per second. It is used in V2V and V2I applications to prevent crashes and improve mobility.

C-V2X is a cellular technology that facilitates very fast communication of critical data between a connected vehicle and connected infrastructure. It is based on 4G-LTE cellular technology, but uses the 5.9GHz spectrum and communicates directly between devices, not through a cell tower. C-V2X is not the same as 5G. C-V2X has been developed in recent years, and is deployed in only a few locations at this time, with limited evaluation of its capabilities. UDOT has deployed and tested this technology.

Vehicles that have the features of both a connected vehicle and an automated vehicle. Some vehicles will be connected but not automated, others will be automated but not connected, and some will have both capabilities. Connected vehicle capabilities and automated vehicle features are complimentary.

Enables automotive manufacturers and suppliers to build serverless IoT applications that gather, process, analyze, and act on connected vehicle data, without having to manage any infrastructure.

A technology that allows vehicles to wirelessly communicate with each other, connected infrastructure (like traffic signals) and other travelers. The data sent from connected vehicles is anonymous. This data can help drivers avoid crashes and enable transportation agencies to improve mobility and reduce congestion. Connected vehicle systems can involve vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) or vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication. Vehicles may also communicate to other travelers, like pedestrians or bicyclists, sometimes referred to as vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) communication. The combined capability of these modes is often referred to as vehicle-to-everything (V2X). Connected vehicles use DSRC or C-V2X communication technologies.

Using technology, including connected vehicle technology, automated driving systems, mobility as a service networks, intelligent transportation systems and integrated trip planning to encourage all modes of transportation to work in concert to provide travelers a safe, reliable, sustainable, and integrated transportation experience. The term “cooperative” implies interdependence.

A tiered data environment with managed access for software developers and partners to provide innovative transportation solutions. Messages sent back and forth between vehicles, infrastructure, and other travelers in a connected vehicle environment will be stored in this data ecosystem. The UDOT Data Ecosystem will be cloud-hosted and is being developed in a partnership agreement with Panasonic of North America. Also referred to as a V2X Data Ecosystem (VDE).

The process a business uses to manage all fleet and asset information, from acquisition through to disposal. This enables your business to reduce costs, improve efficiency and ensure compliance across an entire fleet operation

A management system that uses GPS tracking to monitor the activity of fleet vehicles and assets (e.g., workers, equipment).

The IVI can be described as a combination of vehicle systems which are used to deliver entertainment and information to the driver and the passengers through audio/ video interfaces, control elements like touch screen displays, button panel, voice commands, and more

A combination of information and communication technologies used in transportation and traffic management systems to improve the safety, efficiency, and sustainability of transportation networks, to reduce traffic congestion and to enhance drivers’ experiences. Common elements of an ITS system are traffic cameras, electronic message signs, sensors to measure traffic volumes and speeds, and fiber optic communication systems. Connected vehicle technology is a recent addition to some ITS systems.

Light Detection and Ranging, a method for measuring distances using laser light. Aggregating many points of data measured using LiDAR creates a 3-dimensional representation of objects. Many automated driving systems use LiDAR to map the real-time environment around the vehicle.

Latency is a measure of delay. In computer networks or wireless communication, latency is the measurement of the delay that occurs from sending a message to receipt of that message. For connected vehicles to send and receive messages to effectively prevent crashes between moving vehicles, the latency must be very small. This low latency requirement is generally considered to be less than 20 milliseconds, or two hundredths of a second.

A standardized, digital packet of data used in connected vehicle systems that describes the geometry of a roadway or intersection, including number and width of traffic lanes, locations of crosswalks, and configuration of turning lanes. The MAP message is broadcast by a roadside unit alongside the roadway once every second. It is used in V2V and V2I applications to prevent crashes and improve mobility.

A software system which utilizes vehicle-to-infrastructure communication to consider and balance signal priority requests from multiple vehicles approaching a traffic signal. MMITSS was originally developed at the University of Arizona for the Connected Vehicle Pooled Fund Study. UDOT modified the original MMITSS system to create the TSP and Signal Preemption systems used in Utah. The UDOT version of the software is referred to as MMITSS-Utah.

Equipment installed inside vehicles that transmits and receives data between vehicles and the infrastructure using V2X technology. Also referred to as on-board units (OBU).

An installation of environmental sensors used to assess weather conditions. The sensors measure temperature, wind speed, precipitation, pavement temperature, and other local conditions. The UDOT RWIS stations are positioned along roadways throughout Utah and transmit real-time conditions data to meteorologists at the Traffic Operations Center.

Equipment installed in infrastructure along a road or pedestrian pathway that transmits and receives data to and from vehicles using V2X technology. Also referred to as roadside units (RSU).

A system used to secure V2X messages from misuse and enable secure, authentic and private communications. In a V2X system, a digital credential is attached to each wireless message sent between vehicles, the roadside infrastructure, and other travelers. These digital credentials are provided by a third-party and are authenticated by a secure private key. This system is similar to security methods used to secure credit card and other financial transactions over wireless networks.

A signal preemption system interrupts traffic signal timing to allow critical vehicles to pass through the intersection without stopping. Usually used for emergency vehicles, the signal is turned green when requested by the vehicle, and conflicting traffic is prevented from crossing the intersection. Using roadside and on-board V2I technology, UDOT provides signal priority to its snow plows on certain corridors when they are actively plowing. Using other types of technology, some cities provide preemption to emergency vehicles.

Telematics is an interdisciplinary field that encompasses telecommunications, vehicular technologies (road transport, road safety, etc.), electrical engineering (sensors, instrumentation, wireless communications, etc.), and computer science (multimedia, Internet, etc.).

A system where vehicles share and receive information with other vehicles, other travelers, and the infrastructure using low-latency, wireless communication technology. It includes V2V and V2I systems. Today, the technologies used for V2X communication include DSRC and C-V2X systems.

V2I technology enables vehicles to share and receive information with roadside units using low latency, wireless communication technology. Today, those technologies include DSRC and C-V2X systems. Information communicated through V2I technology is intended to prevent crashes and improve traffic mobility by providing useful information to the driver, the vehicle systems, the infrastructure and roadway operators.

The capability of vehicles to wirelessly communicate with other vehicles using low-latency technology. Information shared between vehicles through V2V technology is intended to prevent crashes by warning drivers of impending danger, such as an oncoming vehicle that can’t be seen.

A request whereby another advertiser can issue a period of 24 hours’ notice for the advertiser
holding the option to either book or drop the held inventory. The advertiser issuing the “24-
hour” is required to have a PO (purchase order) and is under obligation to book the space if
the original advertiser drops the option accordingly.

Standard billboard size. Landscape.

Standard billboard size. Twice the length of a 48 sheet and the largest of the standard landscape formats.

Above the Fold refers to any area of a web page that is viewable without the viewer having to use the vertical scroll bar. Ad space in this area is usually more expensive since it is more likely to be viewed by the visitor.

Refers to a buying decision motivated at the point-of-purchase by such factors as buying
convenience, price, promotion, impulse selection, etc.

Refers to the number and type of people exposed to the specific ad, with an opportunity to
see.

An ad exchange is an open and transparent marketplace that facilitates the buying and selling of online ads. The ideal online ad exchange provides every buyer and seller with the tools and controls needed to reduce risk and maximize return for every media buy. Exchanges allow buyers and sellers to value inventory on an impression by impression basis in a real-time bidding (RTB) environment, providing a Yield Management opportunities for publishers and immediate access to inventory to meets agencies’ goals.

The number of separate ad exposures of an ad audience member during the venue visit or other period.

The number of separate ad exposures of an ad audience member during the venue visit or other period.

The length of time the audience spent viewing and/or listening when ad content is present and deemed viewable.

An ad impression is an ad which is served to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested by the user’s browser (referred to as pulled ads) or they can be pushed, such as e-mailed ads. An ad impression is a measurement of responses from an ad delivery system to an ad request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and is recorded at a point as late as possible in the process of delivery of the creative material to the user’s browser—therefore closest to the actual opportunity to see by the user. Two methods are used to deliver ad content to the user.
**Server-initiated – Server-initiated ad counting uses the publisher’s web content server for making requests, formatting and re-directing content.

**Client-initiated – Client-initiated ad counting relies on the user’s browser to perform these activities. For organizations that use a server-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur subsequent to the ad response at either the publisher’s ad server or the Web content server. For organizations using a client-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur at the publisher’s ad server or third-party ad server, subsequent to the ad request, or later, in the process.

Ad Networks are companies that represent multiple websites and have relationships with advertisers and publishers to sell media on websites. They are constantly looking for more relationships on both sides.

The estimated number of people likely to remember your ads within days of being exposed.

An Ad Server is a computer, typically operated by a third party, that delivers and tracks advertisements independent of the web site where the ad is being displayed. Use of an ad server helps establish trust between an advertiser and publisher since the statistics are maintained by an objective third party.

A commercial time slot immediately before or after a specific ad or program.
advanced audience

Advertising Optimization is the process of finding page impressions that are most likely to lead to consumer engagement with an advertiser. Companies develop sophisticated optimization algorithms and reporting systems, which take into account Big Data in an attempt to figure out which impressions are most likely to lead to conversions, and at the cheapest price.

A unit interval (e.g., 10-second, 15-second, 20-second, 30-second, etc.) containing a commercial message supplied by an advertiser for insertion in the transmissions of a TV channel or digital signage network.

Agency Trading Desks are centralized, service-based organizations that serve as a managed service layer, typically on top of a licensed Demand-Side Platform (DSP) and other audience buying technologies; an Agency Trading Desk manages programmatic, bid-based media and audience buying. It works as an agency’s internal center of excellence, supporting agency teams wishing to tap into this new buying model on behalf of agency clients.

The number of units required to achieve a desired GRP (gross rating point) level in a market.

First version of a digital product that’s ready to test but not feature- or production-ready.

A segment reported advertising expenditures that includes spending on digital billboards, out-of-home television networks and place-based media.

A measurement of social action, the act of proliferating or spreading a message between
consumer’s connection. The greater the amplification, the greater social action has increased
awareness of professional content.

The way in which a computer program talks to another computer program.

The dimensions of a display screen’s image expressed as a ratio of the horizontal width to the vertical height.

Audio, video, still photography, logo graphics etc. and similar elements which are used as components to create finished advertising spots.

The practice of allowing multiple buyers to value and bid on a singular ad opportunity
(impression or spot) leveraging first-, second- or third-party data within a pre-fulfillment
window. The concept of auction is different in TV than it is in digital. Auctions live on a
spectrum, delivering value for the both the buy and sell side.

A video ad or a video ad that initiates play without user interaction or without a user actively starting the video.

A programmatic ad transaction that most closely mirrors a traditional digital direct sale. The deal is negotiated directly between buyer and seller, the inventory and pricing are guaranteed and the campaign runs at the same priority as other direct deals in the ad server. The programmatic element of the transaction that differentiates it from a traditional direct sale is the automation of the RFP and campaign trafficking process. Negotiation through to fulfillment can be, should the publisher desire, completed within the technology platform providing the automated reserve functionality.

The average audience for a unit of time equal to the typical ad unit.

A device that connects a balanced line, such as twisted pair (cat5), to an unbalanced line, such as coaxial cable.

In video applications, the range of available frequencies that can be encoded and decoded as well as the signal-carrying capacity in a video path; measured in Hertz (Hz) or bits or bytes per second (bps/Bps).

Promotional content formatted as a text crawl or graphic that displays horizontally at the bottom or top of a display; can be advertising or the signage operator’s own promotional content.

Profile based on past-observed behavior, typically within 30-90 days of recency. Behavioral profiles may or may not refer to a profile about unique users.

Segmenting audiences that are defined by previous behaviors, frequently their recent online behavior or offline purchases and visitation. For example, an auto advertiser may seek to reach anyone who’s visited an auto review site in the last 30 days.

Behavioral targeting is a technique used by online publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns. Behavioral targeting uses information collected on an individual’s web-browsing behavior and preferences, to select which advertisements to display to that individual.

A state of testing a version of a product, such as a website before it launches. May be either public or selectively available to a certain group of testers.

Big Data refers to massive volumes of either structured or unstructured data that is so large that it’s difficult to process using traditional database techniques. Big Data allows companies to improve operations and make faster, more intelligent decisions.

(1) A sponsor announcement at the beginning or end of digital signage program content.
(2) Large-format advertising displays intended for viewing from extended distances, generally more than 50 feet. Billboard displays include: bulletin, junior posters, posters and spectaculars.

A device that broadcasts a signal that can be identified by other BLE devices in its vicinity. An iBeacon is Apple’s version of the BLE beacon service. Smartphone apps listen for the signal and when the desired conditions are met, they will send a notification to be displayed on the smartphone or trigger an event within an app, which could be an offer, information or other content relevant to the location. Beacons can be deployed individually or as a network.

The largest standardized OOH format, typically measuring 14’x48’ in overall size. Sold either as permanent displays or in rotary packages.

The costs of digital signage networks are met in different ways. An “ad model” creates profit through ad display and sponsorship revenues, coupon redemption commissions and marketing intelligence sales. The costs in a “venue model” are considered by the display location provider (typically) as a cost of business or investment toward patron marketing, up- selling or improving a wait, service or shopping experience. It is common to blend the two business models allowing the benefits of a venue model with investment offset through sponsorship or advertising. Live private program display and distance learning provide benefits in both the ad and venue models.

Profile based on past purchase behavior, such as: What items? When? How much was spent?

Traditional OOH media normally has fixed two-week periods where advertising can be booked in specified packs. Buying flexibility identifies ways the sales company allows the media to be bought, for example, by time of day.

1) The interval of time when an OOH advertising campaign is run.
2) An organized course of action to promote a product or service.
cancellation period
A specified period of time when a contract can be terminated.

An audience confined to an area in which consumers have a strong likelihood of being exposed to the messaging.

Strategically placed digital signage that targets viewers whose activities force them to be in one place, often for a lengthy period of time.

Defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, a metropolitan area within a larger market (e.g., DMA) containing a substantial population nucleus, together with adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. CBSA’s are a standard geography for buying and selling media.

A specific, prescribed or official course or means of communication. In regards to DOOH, this refers to a particular network of venues.

The process of selecting and scheduling individual unit locations to maximize OOH advertising objectives.

A measurement of traffic volume in a market. Circulation only estimates the number of people with an opportunity to see an out-of-home display and, therefore, is no longer a credible measure of an OOH audience and is out of step with other media metrics.

The Click Rate is the ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.

A Click to Play (CTP) video ad has an initial static image file which is displayed encouraging users to click the view the full video. The percentage of viewers who click is known as the Play Rate.

Clicks are a metric which measures the reaction of a user to a digital ad. There are three types of clicks:

Click-through – the action of following a link within an advertisement or editorial content to another Web site or another page or frame within the Web site. Ad click-throughs should be tracked and reported as a 302 redirect at the ad server and should filter out robotic activity.

In-unit click – a measurement of a user-initiated action of responding to an ad element which generally causes an intra-site redirect or content change. In-unit clicks are usually tracked via a 302 redirect. Also known as click-downs, click-ups and click-withins. See ad click; 302 redirect.

Mouseover – the process by which a user places his/her mouse over a media object, without clicking. The mouse may need to remain still for a specified amount of time to initiate some actions.

Counting based on events originating from the user’s browser or other media operated by the user that are closest to the actual social media event being measured (for example, counting an event upon the entry of UGC meeting relevant criteria), which are filtered to exclude known invalid activity.

The sharing of advertising costs between a manufacturer and distributor or dealer.

Audience estimates of people exposed to actual advertising. Geopath OOH Ratings are the first media measurement system providing true commercial audiences of OOH advertising rather than audiences that are merely exposed to editorial content (e.g., read a magazine, read a newspaper, watched a TV program, etc.)

An analog video signal in which the luminance and chrominance is carried on three wires and contains brightness, color and sync pulse information. Also known as Y-Pb-Pr, in which Y carries the luminance, Pb carries the difference between blue and luminance and Pr carries the difference between red and luminance. Referred to as CVBS (color, video, blank and sync), it is used for NTSC, PAL or SECAM video formats.

This refers to the category that a targeting technology has placed a piece of content.

Intentional and direct interaction with intent of redistribution or promotion of content or advertising by individual users of social media platforms to other users of social media platforms, either individually, to a subset of users (friends, followers, etc.) or across the user base.

The portion of the loop, or some other defined period of time, containing program or non- advertising content.

Contextual Targeting aligns advertisements with relevant context on a webpage. Semantic Advertising is one approach within this strategy, classifying at the page level. Also included within the contextual bucket are keyword-based targeting and domain level targeting.

The integration of the three primary communications channels (data, voice and video) into one using the same network appliances, one standard network infrastructure and the same administration. This high-bandwidth, combined-transmission method is known as Internet Protocol (IP).

Conversion Rate is a popular metric for measuring campaign performance, based on the percentage of users who see an ad and complete a certain task or “conversion” as determined by the advertiser. A conversion can mean many things: a user has signed up for a mailing list, purchased a product, or maybe filled out a survey. Many ad campaigns are launched with a CPA (Cost Per Acquisition) goal.

The viewing area on an OOH unit.

The percentage of the population within any geographic area that can be reached by the OOH campaign.

Cost Per Action advertising is based on a visitor taking some specifically defined action in response to an ad. “Actions” include such things as a sales transaction, a customer acquisition, or a click. Specific examples include:

CPC (Cost-per-Customer)
The cost an advertiser pays to acquire a customer.
CPC (Cost-per-Click)
The cost of advertising based on the number of clicks received.
CPL (Cost-per-Lead)
Cost of advertising based on the number of database files (leads) received.
CPO (Cost-per-Order)
Cost of advertising based on the number of orders received. Also called Cost-per Transaction.
CPV (Cost-per-View)
Cost of advertising based on the number of completed views (see Viewability)
CPS (Cost-per-Sale)
The advertiser’s cost to generate one sales transaction. If this is being used in conjunction with a media buy, a cookie can be offered on the content site and read on the advertiser’s site after the successful completion of an online sale.

CPM stands for “cost per mille” (in Latin mille means thousand) and is used to describe the cost of 1,000 advertising impressions. For example, a Web site that charges $1,500 per ad and reports 100,000 visits has a CPM of $15 ($1,500 divided by 100).

Often a spreadsheet is used to show what creative asset will run where and when. This is used when planning more complex campaigns and will be used to test against during User Acceptance Testing (UAT).

The historical OOH audience measurement system. DECs are the average number of persons, in cars or other vehicles, passing and potentially exposed to an advertising display.

A particular way of organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently. Different kinds of data structures are suited to be different kinds of applications and some are highly specialized to specific tasks.

Demand is a term used when referencing the advertising needs of brands or agencies. In direct contrast, Supply refers to the publisher side of the ecosystem. Simply put, Publishers use their Supply (available ad space) to help fill the Demand (advertising requests) coming from brands or agencies.

A Demand-Side Platform (DSP) is a computer-based technological platform which allows brands and agencies to engage in transparent automated media buying across multiple sources using unified targeting, data, optimization and reporting. DSPs help ad buyers navigate the varying array of inventory sources to find the most ideal impressions for a campaign.

Digital networks integrate targeted entertainment and/or information program content with advertising narrowcast through digital networks and/or screens in place based venues such as big box and small retail, transit, malls, grocery, health clubs, medical offices, gas stations, office buildings, hotels and other out of home consumer venues.

Billboards that can change advertising content using digital technology. Content is static with multiple advertising messages presented in rotation every few seconds.

Content that can be viewed, distributed, modified and preserved on computers.

Addressable OOH screens that change advertising content remotely, excluding roadside digital OOH media such as billboards and bus shelters. Digital place-based media includes a broad range of content including static messages and full motion video with an audio track.

Networks integrating targeted entertainment and/or information program content with advertising narrowcast through digital networks and/or screens in place based venues such as big box and small retail, transit, malls, grocery, health clubs, medical offices, gas stations, office buildings, hotels and other out of home consumer venues.

A not-for-profit organization supporting and promoting the common business interests of the world-wide digital signage industry, the interactive technologies industry and the digital out- of-home network industry.

The medium that digital signage content travels between the creation of the content, the displaying of the content on the screen, status information that proves that the content was actually displayed and reporting of how the network is functioning at any given time of the day.

Stand-alone or cloud-based software that drives a digital signage system and its content.

A turn-key system with software, hardware, installation, training and sometimes even content.

Digital media messaging and content specifically intended to reach consumers outside their homes.

Display advertising is a form of online advertising where an advertiser’s message is shown on a destination web page, generally set off in a box or banner at the top or bottom or to one side of the content of the page

The process of using a display’s controls to calibrate the on-screen image so that it matches the original source content as its creator intended it. This allows the calibrated display to accurately reproduce the video signals from any source device, be it a computer, digital signage player, cable/satellite box or Blu-Ray player.

A television market area defined by Nielsen Media Research that is also used by advertisers for multi-media planning. DMAs are non-overlapping and cover the entire United States.

A piece of software that collects, stores, manages data about users for the purposes of profiling, analyzing and targeting an audience. DMPs can build audience segments based on specific demographic information, which are used by advertisers to target their desired users.

The media trade association for the DOOH industry for marketing to consumers outside the home, offering resources on digital place-based advertising, standards and metrics.

The amount of time a customer remains in a venue, or a specific area within a venue. Dwell time is an important variable in determining display placement, advertisement length, content loop duration, advertising-to-content ratio and advertisement cost. One of the primary objectives of digital signage is to increase dwell-time, and therefore often forms part of the return on investment (ROI) metrics and cost justification value proposition.

The process of building responsive creative to deliver contextually-relevant messages driven by the smart use of data across DOOH.

Dynamic Ad Rotations delivers ads on a rotating, random basis so that users are exposed to different ads and ads are served in different pages of the site.

An electronic poster, normally in portrait format, able to display full motion video. Primarily located where people are on the move.

User (consumer) generated activity based on accessing, watching, listening, reading or otherwise responding to media or a brand/product experience.

The number of persons within the target audience exposed to the advertising schedule an average of three or more times.

The degree to which consumers focus or pay attention to a particular program or message. The level of engagement can be a function of the message’s relevancy to the consumer, the degree of interactivity of the medium, the nature of the consumer exposure (e.g., stationary vs. in-movement impressions, captive vs. non-captive audience, etc.) and the breadth of competing messaging.

A type of digital ad that expands in size when a user rolls over or clicks on it.

Rate at which exposed audience visited the store per impression served.

The surface area on an OOH unit where advertising copy is displayed. A structure may have more than one face.

The cardinal direction that an OOH unit faces. As an example, a north facing bulletin is viewed by vehicles traveling south.

A computer or television monitor that does not use cathode ray tube (CRT) technology, but commonly LCD or OLED technology. This allows the monitor to have a thin profile, small footprint and a flat screen, which is how the flat panel display gets its name.

The advertising campaign period for a particular advertising spot or spots, expressed in days or weeks; also known as duration.

An invisible line on a user’s screen, separating the top half from the bottom half of a webpage. If something is described as being “below the fold,” then it requires a user to scroll on the page to see it; if it’s “above the fold,” then it doesn’t require scrolling. A modern version of the terms “above the fold” and “below the fold” to refer to space either above or below, respectively, the fold of a broadsheet newspaper, with above the fold being the most prominent and desirable space.

The measurement of an advertising campaign’s influence on physical visitation to a specified location. This enables advertisers to understand the drivers of in-store visitation.

A limit on how many times one specific user can see a given advertisement within a given time period. For instance, if an advertiser only wants its ad to be displayed one time per day to every person that sees it, a frequency cap can be placed to avoid showing the ad more often than that.

The percentage of respondents reached at each level of exposure to an advertising schedule.

A technology that allows an advertiser to select a geographic point using latitude and longitude information and then to create a radius, or virtual “fence” around that point to deliver a digital communication to a particular audience.

The Geopath ratings system was designed to provide OOH advertising with credible metrics comparable to other measured media. This is achieved with a sophisticated research program specifically designed to measure audiences who actually see advertising on OOH ads throughout the country. The integrated research method incorporates research and expertise in the areas of circulation, visibility and eye tracking research, demography and trip modeling and the building of powerful reach and frequency models.

Geotargeting is the practice of delivering ad content based upon a user’s geographical location, which can be utilized in both desktop and mobile advertising.

An interactive technology allowing users to interact with content on screen using natural body movements such as pointing and waving.

The gross rate is the full cost of advertising and is the amount that advertisers pay for their ads to be aired. This includes a commission to the advertising agency that is typically 15 percent of the cost of the total advertisement costs. The gross rate can be calculated by dividing the net rate of advertising by .85. For example, $10 net costs can be divided by .85 to become $11.76 gross costs.

The sum of exposures to a schedule of digital place-based network announcements.

A term used to measure the size of an audience reached by a specific media vehicle or schedule. In the DOOH landscape, GRP means the total number of impressions delivered, expressed as a percentage of a market population. One rating point represents impressions equal to 1 percent of the market population. In the calculation of GRPs, total impressions must first be reduced to the in-market impressions of individuals who live in the defined market and are part of that market’s population base.

The total number of viewing incidences, over a period of time, to an installed network. This number can be reported by demographic segment.

Costs of advertising or the rates for advertising are generally calculated in two formats — net media and gross media. Net media forms 85 percent of gross media. Accordingly, an advertisement that has a gross media rate or cost of $10,000 will have a net media rate or cost of $8,500. The money that forms the difference between these two rates is the standard agency commission for services such as media buying, planning and trafficking, which are carried out by accredited advertising agencie

The total number of rating points achieved for a particular period of time or schedule of advertisements.

The act of having a single advertiser on the homepage of a website. This is typically requested by an advertiser who wants to have 100 percent of the ads on a homepage for a given period of time.

Describes the on-device technology that allows an NFC-enabled mobile device to provide an exact virtual representation of an electronic identity card such as a credit card or access card, hence “card emulation.”

Refers to self-promotional advertisements that a company runs on its own website.

A pricing model which is based on a combination of a CPM pricing model and a performance-based pricing model. See CPM pricing model and Performance-Based Pricing models for more information.

A way to embed and display content from another site on a website. Think of an IFrame as a window into another property.

A non-unique measure of the total number of times the OOH ad is seen.

An Impression is a measure of the number of times an ad is seen. Clicks are not taken into account. Each time an ad displays it is counted as one impression.

Data relevant to a social media measured event that did not originate from a user, but was instead inferred based on other information associated with that event or the user or related users. Imputed data originates from the measurement organization, not the user. Imputation can be a reasonable and accepted statistical process, but the associated inferences and data processes should be examined for empirical support.

An Insertion Order is an online or printed document that specifies the details of an advertising campaign. The terms of the agreement may also be specified on the insertion order or they may be placed in a separate document.

A net cost that can be added to the OOH schedule accounting for an independent inspection of the campaign.

Data that is captured about the interactions between online connections (friends).

Interstitial Ads appear between two content pages. They are also known as transition ads, intermercial ads and splash pages.

A way to buy/sell programmatic advertising. This auction type is very similar to an open auction, except a publisher restricts participation to select buyers/advertisers via whitelist/ blocklist. A publisher may choose to not participate in an open auction and only run an invitation-only auction. It is important to note that an invitation-only auction is still an auction and buyers will be expected to bid on inventory. A publisher may choose to expose different information such as transparency or data, through the use of deal IDs or line items to add value to this select group of buyers while using this tactic.

Keyword Based Targeting is a technique used by publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness and relevance of ad placement. A Contextual Advertising system scans the text of a website for keywords and returns advertisements to the webpage based on ad messages that match with the sentiment of those keywords.

Lead generation is the use of advertising or other means to receive certain information for the purpose of expanding a business, increasing sales revenues, looking for a job or for new clients, conducting specialized research etc.. Leads can consist of the names, addresses, corporations, institutions, or agencies.

Percent difference in visitation rates between exposed audience and unexposed audience. Also known as “incremental lift.”

The portion of the OTS (opportunity to see) audience who are likely to see an ad. Out of Home is the first medium in the U.S. to move from reporting OTS audiences (also known as Daily Effective Circulation, or DEC) to LTS (Likely to See) audiences, which can also be referred to as commercial audiences.

The simultaneous viewing of more than one OOH unit.

Local Online Ads refer to ads that are purchased based on a “local”, geographic location. Local online ads can be purchased by agencies or brands on a national, regional, or local level (i.e. by zip code or neighborhood).

Any computer program (websites or apps) that uses location data to control features. Examples are Weather.com and OpenTable, which determine where a user is located and return relevant content and/or data.

The tally of individuals in a defined location. The location can be as discreet as an area in the proximity of a display, a predefined geographical area or a venue.

A listing of all locations and displays included in a specific OOH program.

Targeting audiences that have some number of attributes in common with an audience of interest. For example, an advertiser may target “look-alikes” of past purchasers, i.e., those who share demographic or behavioral characteristics of past purchasers, but have not themselves made a purchase.

Information, graphics and/or animation overlaying video; also known as chyrons and superbars.

The lowest rate offered by the network to any advertiser for a specific class of time.

A scientific discipline that is concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to evolve behaviors based on data. A major focus of our machine learning research is to automatically learn to recognize complex patterns in text and make intelligent decisions to categorize it. Our machinery analyzes similarities in content and learns what words, phrases and associations to connect to a certain category.

Geographically defined areas used to buy and sell media. Standard market definitions are DMAs (designated market areas) and CBSAs (core based statistical area).

The physical inspection of the units that comprise an out of home program in a market – either pre-buy or post-buy.

A unit defined by the DOOH network, used to describe the physical device on which a DOOH ad unit will play. Most often for digital place-based networks, a media unit is a single display; however, in locations where multiple screens are combined to portray content that is larger than one screen, the entirety of the group of screens may be referred to as a single media unit.

Data that describes other data, and can be used to organize, understand and find data. Examples of metadata are the author, date created or file size of a digital file, or the title, author and publisher of a book (the book is data, but so is the information that describes the book and makes it easier to find).

A Mid-Roll Video Ad is an online video commercial that appears in the middle of an online video. It is typically :10 – :15 seconds in length. This is in contrast to video ads that play before on online video (known as a Pre-Roll) or after the video content (known as a Post-Roll).

A truck equipped with one or more poster panel units. The truck can either be parked at specified venues or driven around designated localities.

Sensory branding is a type of advertising that appeals to all the senses in relation to the brand. Alongside images, OOH campaigns have incorporated sound, touch, taste and even smell to appeal to audiences.

(1) Touch-sensitive surface able to recognize the presence of two or more points of contact (typically fingers or something device-specific, like a pen) on the same screen.
(2) A type of ad attribution in which credit for a consumer doing something desirable, such as purchasing a product, is distributed to multiple marketing touchpoints. For example, a consumer may see several ads, a news story and visit a website before buying a product. Multi-touch attribution uses data modeling to distribute credit for that sale to all the marketing touchpoints and not just the last one a consumer viewed before the purchase.

Program content designed to reach a specific group defined by a particular demographic.

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a field of computer science and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and natural human languages. This science lays the groundwork for how our machinery processes contextual data, as we strive to teach our computers to understand language the same way humans do.

A set of short range wireless technologies that enables smartphones and other devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching the devices together or bringing them into proximity to a distance of typically 10 centimeters (3.9 inches) or less.

The net cost is the cost of an advertisement when there is no advertising agency involved, or the amount that an advertiser expects to be paid after a 15 percent payment has been made to an advertising agency. In order to calculate the net rate of advertising costs, multiply the gross rate by .85. For example, $10 gross rate multiplied by .85 becomes $8.50 net rate.

Attributes inferred based on consumer’s social data referring to the act of a consumer amplifying or sharing content to his/her connections or social graph.

A way to buy/sell programmatic advertising. It is the least-restrictive type of ad auction, with a media owner/publisher generally allowing any and all buyers to participate in accessing the ad inventory through this tactic. Usually there is no direct relationship with the buyer. Media owners may choose to use blocklists and floor pricing to prevent certain advertisers from gaining access. On the advertiser side, they are often unaware of what media owner network they are buying on. DSPs usually present a list of exchanges/SSPs to the buyer that they automatically opt into. Buyers may not know or care that they are buying a specific network’s inventory. Because of this, publishers can participate in the open auction on a blind basis.

The probability of being exposed to a medium’s content and/or the advertising it contains. OTS does not require actual exposure to all content or advertising.

These are designed to allow a client time to raise a PO (purchase order). Options are an intention to book the space within the selected period. An option can be placed any time throughout a week and will always drop off at noon on Friday unless otherwise stated.

These are designed to allow a client time to raise a PO (purchase order). Options are an intention to book the space within the selected period. An option can be placed any time throughout a week and will always drop off at noon on Friday unless otherwise stated.

Total unique count of users exposed to organic (unpaid) content that includes only those actual users exposed to content in its original format (within a general feed, ticker, page, etc.).

Consistency of message content and tone across each marketing touchpoint or delivery mechanism, including executive and staff, ads, packaging, public and media relations, etc. Consistent communication can result in brand-building, but if consistency is lacking, the result can be “de-branding”.

All media formats specifically intended to reach consumers outside the home.

The official resource for information on out-of-home video advertising, marketing and metrics.

A media channel that is Owned, and by implication controlled, by a media outlet or brand; for example, a website, page, account, station (radio or television), app, display or network of displays. Owned media should be defined by the vertical or context of the measurement.

Content that appears on owned media that a brand or marketing organization has paid or incentivized to place, typically advertising, messaging or brand sponsorship. May also be referred to as sponsored media, native advertising content or content marketing.

Total unique count of users exposed to paid content or advertising that includes only those actual users exposed to content in its original format (within a general feed, ticker, page, etc.).

Means the primary ad unit is accompanied by content and/or a companion ad unit or some other visual enhancement (such as ticker, clock or logo).

The percent of the total audience for a display or schedule that a brand target demographic group comprise.

An advertising model in which advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria, such as a percentage of online revenues or delivery of new sales leads. See Cost Per Action.

A type of communication in which two NFC devices exchange information.

Slang for two commercial announcements from the same sponsor that are presented back-to- back within a single commercial time segment. An example of this is two 15-second commercials in a 30-second time slot. This is also called double spotting.

OOH media used to create customized advertising programs generally targeting specific consumer audiences. This includes advertising in, but is not limited to: arenas and stadiums, retail video retail networks, health clubs and gym, bar and restaurants, and movie theaters.

A term that identifies a media company and its entire OOH advertising inventory in a market.

The final format in which the ad unit will be played across the network. Networks shall disclose the playback format.

A pop-under is a window that is created but temporarily “hidden” behind the window of a website that the user has chosen to visit. Pop-under ads are concealed until the top window is closed, moved, resized or minimized. Although some users find pop-unders to be intrusive, advertisers generally report good results.

An online video commercial that appears at the end of an online video, it is typically :10 – :15 seconds in length. This is in contrast to video ads that play before on online video (known as a Pre-Roll) or in the middle of the video content (known as a Mid-Roll).

Total count of unique users based on a count of a subset of platform users or a network such as friends, followers or fans. Potential reach should be limited to use as a planning metric only (not a currency measurement), however, properly disclosed and supported estimated actual reach may be used as an evaluation metric where appropriate.

Pre-roll video ads are online video commercials that appear prior to an online video. They are typically :10 – :15 seconds in length. Pre-roll makes up a small percentage of the available interactive video inventory, but it is growing more popular due to the fact that online publishers can better guarantee that users will see and hear the pre-roll commercial before the audio stream starts.

Refers to the dominant area of advertising displayed on the display. The primary ad unit should be described as either fullscreen or partial-screen.

Should be referred to as either landscape (horizontal orientation) or portrait (vertical orientation).

The predominant audience to the format. Many networks attract different audiences depending on day and time of day, or are applicable to a number of niche audiences.

Any OOH display that uses a printed substrate to display advertising content.

CLEAR is an acronym for Control Links for Education and Advertising Responsibly. The CLEAR Ad Notice is a document that suggests technical standards to empower each member of the online advertising community to communicate their presence and behavioral advertising targeting practices (if any) to consumers in a simple and direct manner. The 7 regulatory principle buckets: Education Transparency Consumer Control Data Security Material Changes to Existing Online Behavioral Advertising Policies and Practices Sensitive Data Accountability.

Any of several different sampling approaches in which each element in the population has a known, non-zero probability of being selected.

Name, image, demographic information such as age and gender, location, interests, groups and installed applications.

Programmatic Advertising is the practice of using technology to automate and streamline the buying and selling of online advertising. While it includes Real-Time Bidding (RTB), there are several other Programmatic Advertising methods and buy types that are being used today.

A prototype of functionality, initial animatics or mock-ups. These are generally created in the discovery phase of a project to get stakeholder buy-in without investing too much time.

(1) Acronym for proof of play or proof of performance. A reporting mechanism in which logs are used to show that an ad actually played back on a digital signage system; some advertisers now also demand “proof of display,” verification that the ad was actually shown on the screens, as well as third-party audited play logs
(2) Acronym for point of purchase. Retail marketing term for a display or any advertising that targets customers near the cash register or the counter where items are bought; also known as point of sale (PoS), but PoS often refers to the equipment used to facilitate the retail transaction.

A web Publisher is an individual or organization that prepares, issues, and disseminates content for public distribution via one or multiple websites. In the digital advertising ecosystem, Publishers sell digital advertising space, called Supply, either directly to media buyers or programmatically through Supply-Side Platforms (SSPs).

The systematic monitoring and evaluation of something to look for mistakes or problems. Used by companies to continuously evaluate products or services. In software development, beta testing (also called user acceptance testing) a product before final release is part of the quality assurance process.

A document provided by a media owner/publisher with its rates for advertising. It may also detail any deadlines, demographics, policies, additional fees and artwork specifications.

The estimate of the size of the audience, expressed as a percent of the audience population. The percent sign is not shown and the rating may represent overall viewing or a specific segment of audience viewing within a defined geography or universe.

The net (unduplicated) count or percent of the defined universe of the target audience exposed to content, advertising or a specific ad, in a display within a defined time frame. This time frame can be a day, week or month, or even less-frequent time periods although more frequent reports are generally desirable to users.

A mode in which an NFC device is active and reads a passive RFID tag; for example, reading and storing a website address or coupon from an ad for interactive advertising.

Real-Time Bidding (RTB) is the dynamic process of buying and selling impressions in real-time where the highest bidder “wins” the right to place a display ad on a publisher’s website. Real-time bidding helps advertisers more effectively uncover, understand, and unleash opportunity within each campaign effort, and gives publishers an automated method to monetize more of their ad inventory.

A technique in which video is projected from behind a translucent screen material, rather than in front of a screen, to make better use of available space, cast an unobstructed image and prevent shadowing on the screen.

Advertising that is effective because it is timely and relevant to an audience, as opposed to the frequency of impressions; based on an education psychology theory that says information acquired last is remembered best.

Remnant Inventory is advertising space that remains unsold up until it is about to be used and thus often sold at a discount at the last minute in a Real-Time Bidding (RTB) environment. These auctions are often facilitated by Ad Exchanges, Supply-Side Platforms (SSPs) and Demand-Side Platforms (DSPs).

A method of connecting remote media storage devices such as hard drives to a local system. Users at the local system can access these systems, and read and write from them as if they were local.

The percentage of eligible sample units that provide usable, complete information in a survey.

Retargeting is an online advertising technique that targets users which have already visited a website. Retargeting works by placing a small amount of code on a website which will place Cookies on a user’s web browser.

Users can interact with Rich Media Ads in a web page format. These advertisements can use sound, video, or Flash along with programming languages such as Java, Javascript, and DHTML. Guidelines cover standard web applications including e-mail, static (e.g. html) and dynamic (e.g. asp) web pages, and may appear in ad formats such as banners and buttons as well as transitionals and various over-the-page units such as floating ads, page takeovers, and tear-backs.

Run of Network (RON) means an ad will appear on any page of any site that is part of an ad network. Since this type of buy is not targeted, it tends to be the least expensive type of advertisement that can be purchased.

Ron of Site (ROS) means an ad will appear across an entire site, often at a lower cost to the advertiser than the purchase of specific site sub-sections.

Short for separate video, a video connection interface that carries luminance (Y) and chrominance (C) signaling separately to prevent color crosstalk and for improved image reproduction.

A device or medium designed to deliver digital signage or DOOH/advertising content whether it be video, audio or both. The preferred term is now “display,” but screen is still used.
Screen/display audience
The count of individuals estimated to be present in the screen/display exposure zone that viewed the screen while a viewability condition exists. Also referred to as the audience.
Screen/display count
The number of individuals over a period of time with presence in the screen/display exposure zone while a viewability condition exists.
Screen/display exposure zone
The physical area in which a person is able to see and/or hear a specific, place-based advertising source. This may also be referred to as the visibility zone or audibility zone depending on the measure.
screen/display traffic
The count of individuals over a period of time with presence in the screen/display exposure zone while a viewability condition exists.
Screen/display zoning
The dividing a digital signage into regions containing separate static or real-time content feeds, or a mix of both.

A form of marketing wherein a website uses best practices to help them achieve a better page ranking in search engine results.

The premium or discount placed on the relative value of a viewer demographic based on the time of the year. For example, since reaching viewers is more beneficial at the Christmas buying season, a premium say, 30 percent might be added to a weekly traffic count, while a post-Christmas viewer total would be discounted due to a lower inclination to purchase.

Dividing a broad group of consumers or businesses into subgroups (known as segments) based on shared demographic/psychographic/behavioral attributes. Segmentation is often used to create target audiences (comprising one or more segments) or to customize an offer or message for specific segments.

Media delivered in an environment in which the potential audience makes a conscious decision to engage with the messaging.

Semantic Advertising applies semantic technologies to online advertising solutions. The function of semantic advertising technology is to analyze every web page according to its true meaning and sentiment in order to ensure that the web page contains the most appropriate advertising. Semantic advertising increases the chance that the viewer will engage with an ad because only advertising relevant to what they are viewing.

The ability to sign onto a platform and have access to multiple other properties and systems without having to log in again each time. Using a Facebook or Google account to login to another site is an example of single sign on.

An adhesive strip that is used to cover a portion of copy displayed on an OOH unit.

An online ad that incorporates user interactions that the consumer has agreed to display and be shared. The resulting ad displays these interactions along with the user’s persona (picture and/or name) within the ad content.

Measurement of consumer-driven engagement used to determine the value of associated earned media.

A software delivery model in which software and its associated data are hosted centrally (typically in the internet/cloud) and are accessed by users using a thin client, such as a web browser over the Internet. SaaS has become a common delivery model for most business applications, including accounting, collaboration, customer relationship management (CRM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), invoicing, human resource management (HRM), content management (CM) and service desk management. SaaS has been incorporated into the strategy of all leading enterprise software companies. Sometimes referred to as on-demand software.

A bulletin that is usually larger than 14’ x 48’ and is positioned at a prime location in a market. A spectacular often utilizes special embellishments.

Media influenced by a brand through payment or other incentive, but where the message is not controlled as directly as a brand created advertisement.

Rate at which exposed consumers visited the store per impression served.

Video or other media compressed and delivered to an audience on-demand or live without the need for a complete transfer of the original file.

Advertising displays, many that provide a public amenity, positioned at close proximity to pedestrians for eye-level viewing or at a curbside to impact vehicular traffic. Street furniture displays include, but are not limited to transit shelters, newsstands/news racks, kiosks, shopping mall panels, convenience store panels and in-store signage.

The specification of the sample frame, sample size and the system for selecting and obtaining information from/about individual respondents in the population.

Panels with coatings and films that reduce the amount of reflective light, making them ideal for digital signage in brightly lit or even direct sunlight areas.

Supply is a term used when referencing the advertising impressions available on a publisher’s website. In contrast, Demand refers to the advertiser’s side of the ecosystem. Simply put, Publishers use their Supply (available ad space) to help fill the Demand (advertising requests) coming from brands or agencies.

A Supply Side Platform (SSP) is an advertising technology platform which helps web publishers manage and monetize their digital advertising inventory, and guarantees inventory availability. SSPs allow many of the larger web Publishers of the world to automate and optimize the selling of their online media space.

An advertisement that works as contextual advertising, running next to editorial or “infotainment” content with similar subject matter.

The total number of in-market impressions from a target audience delivered by an OOH campaign expressed as a percentage of a market population.

Ads are typically either first-party served or third-party served. First-party served ads are ads being served by the media owner/publisher/network displaying the ads. Third-party ad serving refers to ads being served by the advertiser (or agency). Third-party ad serving allows advertisers to have a tighter control on the creatives and gives them slightly more visibility into the performance of the ads.

Agencies used by network owner/operators to coordinate the delivery and sales transactions of advertising content and campaigns from merchants, companies and media resellers.

Horizontal text streamed across a screen often used to deliver headlines, promotions and up- to-date stock information to an audience.

The number of people who enter a venue. As noted in the DPAA Glossary: “The simplest to measure, but least relevant gauge of value is distribution and verification (e.g., audited circulation in print). This is venue traffic for digital place-based networks.”
transit

Displays affixed to moving public transportation vehicles or in the common areas of transit terminals and stations. Transit displays include, but are not limited to: bus panels, train/rail panels, airport panels, taxi panels and mobile advertising signage.

A one-to-one model of content distribution to a Television screen (TV, Mobile Device, PC, Tablet), generally targeted using audience data.

The unduplicated audience that has an opportunity to see any message during a reporting period.

Unique Visitors is a metric that measures the number of distinct individuals requesting pages from the website during a given period, regardless of how often they visit. Visits, on the other hand, refers to the number of times a site is visited during a specific time period, regardless of how many unique visitors make up those visits.

A geographic universe or coverage definition stated on the basis of population amounts is required for OOH networks subject to measurement. These may be customized (or limited) based on the specific attributes of the network and the associated venue traffic. In some cases a customized universe can be stated or a general population estimate (e.g., U.S. Census estimates) for media comparability purposes.

A way to buy/sell programmatic advertising. Transactions that fall into this category exist within an exchange environment, but have pre-negotiated, fixed pricing (CPM, CPC, etc.) Typically, unreserved fixed rate deals sit at a higher priority than the open and/or invitation- only auction. A deal of this type typically is necessitated by advertiser demand for a more predictable offering within the exchange space.

The UAT phase allows stakeholders to validate the completed experience against the original SOW (statement of work), wireframes and functional spec — either with the client or a closed group of individuals. Sometimes also referred to as a beta test.

A way to describe the interactions that a person has with a digital product. Where UI (user interface) refers to the look and feel of a digital product, UX refers to the interactions and processes that occur when a user engages with the site.

Any form of digital content created by users. Yelp, for instance, is a website built entirely on UGC. Many blogs allow for commenting, which is another form of UGC. Social media is UGC.

A User Interface (UI) is the means by which a person controls a software application or hardware device. A good user interface provides a “user-friendly” experience, allowing the user to interact with the software or hardware in a natural and intuitive way. Nearly all software programs have a graphical user interface (GUI). This means the program includes graphical controls, which the user can select using a mouse or keyboard. A typical GUI of a software program includes a menu bar, toolbar, windows, buttons, and other controls.

The process of checking with respondents after they have been interviewed to be sure the person was actually interviewed and that the interview was done correctly and completely – where and when it was supposed to have been done.

Video Ad Serving Template (VAST) provides a common ad response format for video players enabling video ads to be served across all compliant video players. These simple ad formats do not provide an interactive user experience, and do not allow the advertiser to collect rich interaction details.

Full-motion video, with or without audio, commercial, can play full screen or with an enhancing graphical banner.

Video networks integrating targeted entertainment and/or information program content with advertising narrowcast through digital networks and/or screens in place based venues such as big box and small retail, transit, malls, grocery, health clubs, medical offices, gas stations, office buildings, hotels and other out of home consumer venues.

An analog computer display standard with a resolution of 640×480 and a 256-color palette; most VGA devices use the HD15 connector; although analog, VGA video from a PC is used in many digital signage applications by using VGA extenders and splitters.

VPAID establishes a common interface between video players and ad units, enabling a rich interactive in-stream ad experience. Advertisers using VPAID ads can provide rich ad experiences for viewers and collect ad playback and interaction details that are just as rich as the ad experience. With the adoption of VPAID, advertisers have more control over the display experience in their video campaigns. Also, as VPAID compliant video players enable a more diverse and interactive set of video advertising, VPAID compliant publishers should expect to sell more instream video inventory.

A wall-mounted or frame-mounted checkerboard configuration of multiple video displays showing different images or a single image spread across multiple displays.

View Through Rate (VTR) is an estimation of the number of impressions viewed during the advertising campaign, (as well as estimation of realized advertising contacts).

Viewability is an online advertising metric used to measure the rate of viewable impressions as defined by the Interactive Advertising (IAB) Bureau and the Media Ratings Council (MRC). Currently, for an ad to be considered viewable, at least 50% of its pixels must be in view for either 1 second (standard display) or 2 seconds (video).

Yield Optimization (Revenue Optimization)
Yield and Revenue Optimization is the process of understanding, anticipating and influencing advertiser and consumer behavior in order to maximize profits through better selling, pricing, packaging and inventory management, while delivering value to advertisers and site users.

A mechanism that performs a physical task based on input from a connected system.

An open application layer protocol for message-oriented middleware with a focus on queuing, routing (P2P, PubSub), security, and reliability.

Help address the lack of overhead for end-to-end, peer-to-peer networking in IoT architecture by their presence in the propagator nodes in an enterprise. They move intelligence to the edge of the network to help manage traffic, allow a real-time response to changing IoT conditions, and provide local client services.

Lighter, purpose-built protocols that allow the “things” in IoT to communicate and interchange. Built for machine-to-machine communication, they are efficient, extensible data frames that have an open-source structure, private data fields, and a simple checksum.

A messaging pattern in which more consumers get messages from a common source (i.e. queue), but each message is delivered to only one consumer.

Components that make up the Internet of Things. Many have built-in sensors and/or actuators and collect data to help users or other devices make informed decisions and monitor or affect outside events.

A part of the Edge Layer that serves to ensure that device connectivity doesn’t fail if there is a network failure or an unreliable connection.

A messaging mechanism in which the sender and receiver are directly connected or can exchange messages through one or more intermediate hops, which do not take ownership of each message but just forward it (routing).

The connecting factor between device analytics and cloud data processing and analytics.

An architectural shift in IoT that breaks the norm of the traditional client-server model. This is the first layer of connectivity for devices to connect to before going to the server. Responsible for the local connectivity of devices and for managing the data collection and connection to this server.

A computer with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system; it is embedded as part of a complete device.

A type of programming that defines applications as networks of processes that exchange data across defined connections by message-passing, where the connections are specified externally to the processes.

A dynamic model for analytics applications wherein an application at the data source analyzes a pooled view of resources for the local and global compute available across the cloud, edge, and device layers. This information informs how and where data analytics take place.

A combination of hardware and software solutions that allow for the control and management of electronics, appliances, and devices within a home.

The integration of machine learning, big data technology, sensor data, and machine-to-machine communication automation. This is done with the knowledge that the Internet of Things will be scaled and driven by enterprises. The idea is that smart machines can more accurately capture and communicate data to help corporations find problems sooner and increase overall efficiency.

The “tree trunk” of network architecture that performs the big data functions to provide a higher-level analysis of human interaction for near-edge analytics and broader-scope analysis and control.

A network of objects (such as sensors and actuators) that can capture data autonomously and self-configure intelligently based on physical world events, allowing these systems to become active participants in various public, commercial, scientific, and personal processes.

A cloud platform that provides a set of services that simplify the integration process between the services provided by cloud platforms and IoT devices. Some platforms include development tools and data analytics capabilities.

Electronics that have been designed to use less electric power than traditional devices. These are necessary to the future success of IoT because, as sensors become more advanced, devices need to be able to operate for longer periods of time without relying on manual maintenance or loss of data.

This refers to a network setup that allows connected devices to communicate freely, usually between a large number of devices; M2M often refers to the use of distributed systems in industrial and manufacturing applications.

A type of network topology in which a device transmits its own data and also serves as a relay for other nodes by providing the most efficient data path through routers.

A set of short range wireless technologies that enables smartphones and other devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching the devices together or bringing them into proximity to a distance of typically 10 centimeters (3.9 inches) or less.

Operability is the measure of how well a software system works when operating in production, whether that is the public cloud, a co-located data center, an embedded system, or a remote sensor forming part of an IoT network.

A network created through the interconnection of information technology devices within the context of a single user.

The “leaves” of the network architecture tree that are serviced by intermediate branch network elements. They manage message routing protocol translation services.

A technology that incorporates electromagnetic coupling and radio frequency to identify objects and persons. It consists of three components: an antenna, transceiver, and transponder.

Designed to guarantee the completion of a task within a certain time constraint. Often used in safety-critical systems and when building IoT devices.

A device or component that perceives and responds to physical input from the environment.

Allows site-level arrangement across devices from different vendors using dissimilar protocols.

A messaging mechanism in which a broker is involved between sender and receiver so that the broker gets ownership of the message from the sender, stores it for reliability, and then delivers the message itself to the receiver.

An integrated chip that is composed of electronic circuits of multiple computer components to create a complete device.

A method of enhancing computer use by making several computers available throughout a physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user.

Connected devices that can be equipped with different types of sensors and are worn on a person’s body. They are meant to monitor, collect, and quantify data about a person’s life and environment, and allow them to interface with that data.

A wireless local area network (WLAN) that uses radio waves to provide wireless high-speed Internet and network connections.